From inside the for each circumstances, the questions focused on one another face-to-deal with and online relationships


To help you assess the size of the latest network of face-to-deal with family members, those things in the Contentment Questionnaire Screen (Helliwell and you can Huang, 2013) were utilized: “As much as how many family relations have you got?.” This question is replied on a level of 1 less than 5 family in order to 5 more 50 family unit members. Issue to evaluate the size of on the internet friend communities is equivalent (Helliwell and you will Huang, 2013): “Up to just how many family unit members do you have to your Fb?” nevertheless effect level is actually other, anywhere between step 1 lower than fifty to eight more than a thousand.

All the questions into top-notch relationship included in the fresh new Western european Public Questionnaire was indeed modified to assess top-notch deal with-to-face and online friendships. All the questions have been: “How many people are you experiencing having whom you can discuss intimate and personal things?” and you will “Just how many ones people is actually your Myspace nearest and dearest?.” Brand new impulse measure ranged from just one (none) so you can eight (ten or higher).

A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.


To determine physical health, and the thought wellness items commonly used in internationally surveys (elizabeth.grams., Eriksson ainsi que al., 2001 – “How can you speed your health in general” having responses with the an effective 5-section measure, anywhere between very good to very bad) new four pieces of the brand new physical health measurement of one’s Condition out-of Health Survey SF-thirty six (Ware and you will Sherbourne, 1992) was basically integrated. A good example of the questions try: “I appear to get sick a small convenient than many other anybody.” These items was in fact responded into an excellent 5-section measure, anywhere between step one seriously not the case to help you 5 seriously genuine. The 5 facts displayed an acceptable reliability (? = 0.72) and also the average of your five circumstances are computed due to the fact signal regarding worry about-advertised future health.

Psychological state try reviewed via four activities regarding the SF-thirty six (Ware and you may Sherbourne, 1992). An illustration was “How many times have you ever felt most nervous during the last cuatro months” Such inquiries have been answered to the an effective 5-point scale, between never to constantly. Since the number of internal consistency of the items is actually an effective (? = 0.80), the latest sign out of mental health was determined, averaging new answers to those five issues.

The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.

The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.